*from solar plasma inferno
released again on earth
gentle heat browning
bonds melding, un-melding
fuel for life’s own slow fire
burning into earth*

This calculator uses the "baker's percentage" where each ingredient is expressed as a percentage of the largest ingredient (in this case flour is 100%). This method allows any recipe to be easily scaled for any amount of flour. Print out your final formula for future reference.

**1. hydration**

The optimal hydration level can vary depending on the specific flour, recipe or desired final texture. A good rule of thumb is around 65-70% for a basic white bread made with high protein bread flour. This means that for every 100g of bread flour you would use approximately 65-70g of water. The exact amount of water needed can vary depending on temperature, humidity or a specific brand or type of flour. Experience will tell you when it is right.

When making bread with high protein flour over-hydrating the dough can lead to a sticky and unmanageable dough. Higher hydration bread doughs such as sourdough may require techniques such as pulling or folding instead of kneading. But if the dough is under-hydrated it can result in a dense and tough bread. I aim for an initial dough texture that is slightly "shaggy" but not too wet. I have found about 65% hydration is good for the flour I use and for regular loaves. Experiment and make your own formula because many recipes suggest 60-70% and some Artisan baking books use recipes up to 80% - particularly for sourdough. It depends on the type of bread. Dough will need some working before the water is fully distributed so care is required; and don't add more flour except for a light dusting when shaping. Keep to the formula.

**2. water in ingredients**

Also, some ingredients add extra water. This can be taken into account in calculations. Examples of approximate water content:

- milk 98%
- egg whites 88%
- yoghurt 85%
- ricotta / cottage cheese 75%
- whole eggs 75%
- egg yolks 50%
- butter, margarine 15%

To take these into account complete flour and hydration targets as normal; then adjust hydration to compensate. Use the optional calculation "Baker's percent for an ingredient" and enter the amount of water added by the ingredient. For example, one egg weighs about 50g, 75% of 50g is 37.5g. For a dough with 200g of flour the egg adds 18.8 baker's percent of water. 18.8 can then be added to 2nd liquid and 1st liquid reduced by 18.8 so total hydration remains at the target level.

For doughs with butter first crumble flour and butter in bowl, then mix in eg. sugar, salt, then yeast, finally add eggs and warm milk. Mix and knead etc.

**3. using preferments**

Whatever method is used the final dough composition should reflect the formula, particularly final hydration. So using straight, sourdough, poolish etc. the final ratios should match the formula. If you are making a preferment mix simply add relevant flour amounts, with preferment amount in 1st flour field, which would be in the range up to 50% of the total flour amount. Then determine the water percentages using your preferment.

For example, a poolish or a sourdough starter is generally equal weights of flour and water or 100% hydration. In that case 1st flour weight is 50% of the starter's weight. To complete the formula first determine what percentage that 1st flour weight is of the total flour amount. That percentage will be the same as the 1st water percentage. You can then adjust the 2nd water percentage to make the required overall hydration, so the sum of 1st and 2nd water percentages is the required total like 70%.

**4. salt**

Salt helps dough development and taste. These recipes have very little salt because I am trying to limit my salt intake for health reasons. So the dough structure might be weaker and the bread itself might not taste as good with low salt. But I think it is healthier and it's likely that what's on the bread has plenty of salt in it. About 2 percent salt is a common recommendation in bread recipes and you can use that instead. I suggest one percent or less.

**5. yeast**

Fresh yeast is not readily available for me. These recipes use instant dry yeast with about 6g per 500g of flour recommended. This is about 1.2 percent.

**6. finished weight**

After completing the recipe check the overall weight to ensure it meets your target weight and adjust the flour amount if necessary. For example, the target dough weight for a standard bread loaf pan (9" x 4" x 4") about 850g, or for buns and rolls about 100g each.

Bread will lose around 10% of its weight when baked. So the final weight of bread will be lower than the dough weight, eg. 850g of dough will give a loaf of about 765g, and 100g will give a 90g roll.

Cups cannot accurately weigh ingredients (except water) because of their varying densities. Different flours have different densities and different measurement techniques produce different results. Approximate weights are shown for white all purpose wheat flour.

A spoon and level flour measurement method is the widely used. It requires fluffing/sifting the flour first and then spooning it into the cup. This is the "proper" method of measurement and results in a commonly promulgated weight of 1 US cup of flour at 120g. I have rarely been able to replicate this, and the measurement used here is for 125g using spoon and level with a ~0.53 g/ml density.

I use dip and sweep flour measurement as it is easier. Based on experience this uses ~0.593 g/ml density for unsifted flour. That is, slightly compressed flour taken straight from the bag in the cup and levelled. However, weights can vary greatly depending on the flour.

If weights are used method becomes less important, but most recipes with cups will use a spoon and level measuring method.

In the US there are 48 teaspoons and 16 tablespoons in a cup. For metric countries there are generally 50 teaspoons and 16.67 tablespoons in a cup. An exception being Australia, which as 20ml tablespoons and 12.5 tablespoons in a cup. So be careful to check the origin of recipes.

It's important to note that measuring ingredients by weight is more accurate than measuring by volume, especially for baking, where precise measurements are often crucial to achieving the desired outcome.

Use buttons like a calculator, or enter calculation directly into the result area by clicking/tapping it and using a keyboard, then when ready press `=`

button.

tape of inputs

This field is requiredResults area, expressions can be entered here

This field is required**Examples**

1) Account for dough shrinkage and weight loss, which may vary due to cooking method or bread shape. Use the following formula: Initial Weight = `desired finished weight / (1 - percent weight loss)`

. You have found your baguettes loose 12% of their dough weight. For a finished weight you want 3 x 200g baguettes. The dough required is `600/(1-12%)`

= 681.82g

2) You have determined that about 340 grams of dough is a good amount for your style of 12" pizza (I have too ...). This is 200g flour at 65% hydration with a little yeast, oil and sugar. Use the calculator to find how much dough you would need for one square inch of pizza so you can make larger or smaller pizzas accurately. This is so that thickness and cooking time are the same.

Area of a pizza = `pi*radius^2`

Number of square inches in a 12" pizza = `pi*6^2`

= 113 sq inch

Number of grams per sq inch = `340/113`

grams = 3 g

Amount of dough required:

10" pizza = `pi*5^2*3`

= 236 g

12" pizza = `pi*6^2*3`

= 339 g

14" pizza = `pi*7^2*3`

= 462 g

16" pizza = `pi*8^2*3`

= 603 g

3) Conversions between metric and US use `to`

, eg. convert pounds (lb) or ounces (oz) to kilograms (kg) or grams (g) enter eg. `2lb+3oz to g`

; `100g to oz`

.

4) Percentages of ingredients use `%`

, eg. 65% of 500 grams enter `500g*65%`

. You can calculate using metric and US units together, eg. `500g*65% to oz`

.

5) Convert cooking temperatures between degress fahrenheit (degF) and degrees celsius (degC), eg. `450degF to degC`

or `220degC to degF`

.

**White Dough**

100% strong bread flour

65-70% water

1% salt

1.2% yeast

**Olive Dough**

100% strong bread flour

65-70% water

1% salt

1.2% yeast

10% olive oil

4% semolina (coarse)

**Brown Dough**

60% strong wholemeal flour

40% strong white flour

65-70% water

1% salt

1.2% yeast

**Milk Bread**

100% strong white flour

12% butter

1% sugar

1% salt

1.2% yeast

40% water

25% full fat milk

**Easter Buns**

100% plain flour

6% butter

9% caster sugar

0.5% salt

2% yeast

2% mixed spice

18% egg

50%-55% full fat milk

40% mixed dried fruit

**Seaweed Bread**

50% strong white flour

50% strong wholemeal flour

65-70% water

1% salt

1.2% yeast

2% dried wakame seaweed

**Multigrain Brown Bread**

40% strong wholemeal flour

35% strong white flour

25% multi-grain flour

65-70% water

1% salt

1.2% yeast

**Rye Dough**

80% strong white flour

20% dark rye flour

65-70% water

1% salt

1.2% yeast

**Sweet Dough**

100% strong white flour

12% unsalted butter

8% caster sugar

1% salt

1.2% yeast

20% egg

50%-55% full fat milk

**Buttery Shortbread Cookies**

100% self-raising flour (all purpose flour with 4% baking powder)

50% melted salted butter

50% sugar

50% inclusions (choc bits, dried fruit etc.)

20% liquid, eg. 17% milk and 3% vanilla extract

**Batter recipes:**

**Pound cake**

100% flour

100% butter

100% sugar

100% egg

2% vanilla

**Pancakes**

100% flour

120% milk

20% melted butter

9% sugar

33% egg

2.7% baking powder

2% salt

Total weight g

Number of portions

Each portion g

1 Flour

2 Flour

3 Flour

*Total flour*

1 Liquid

2 Liquid

*Total liquid*

Salt

Yeast

Oil/Fat

Sugar

Egg

1 Other

2 Other

3 Other

4 Other

1 Flour

g

2 Flour

g

3 Flour

g

*Total flour*

g

1 Liquid

g

2 Liquid

g

*Total liquid*

g

Salt

g

Yeast

g

Oil/Fat

g

Sugar

g

Egg

g

1 Other

g

2 Other

g

3 Other

g

4 Other

g

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